Mütter museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Over 25,00 specimens inhabit the Mütter museum, showcasing human mutations, injuries, and abnormalities. Thomas Mütter, a surgeon, collected abnormal and unique specimens in an effort to show his students the wide variety in human bodies. He donated his collection of 1,300 anatomical and pathological materials to a museum that opened in 1863.
Included here is a 70-pound ovarian cyst, skulls affected by syphilis, a stone fetus, and more. All of these existed inside living, breathing humans, as you see them, testaments to the fragility of humans and their development.
Trepanation (also trephination) as seen in paleopathological research from around the world. Many of these examples show extensive evidence of healing, meaning that the individual lived after the procedure. This is considered to be one of the oldest medical practices in human history, originating at least 9/10,000 years ago.
In museums and galleries throughout the capitals of Europe, young men who embarked on the Grand Tour gazed at artistic representations of the human body in paintings, waxworks, and sculptures. Popular were the ‘Skeletons of Malefactors’ on display at the University of Leiden. Wax figures known as Venuses, found in Felice Fontana’s Florentine workshop, are mentioned in many letters and journals recounting travellers’ formative experiences. Grand tourists may well have also visited brothels where, well away from the confines of home, they would have gained (or expanded on) their early sexual experiences.
Research suggests that many young travellers also went to see smaller and less celebrated museums that displayed representations of human anatomy in the shape of skeletons (obtained by rendering down corpses), pickled body parts, and wax models of the body created to show with detailed accuracy the internal organs.
“My research explores the material side of human anatomy and the variety of spaces where new techniques and forms were developed. The ways in which self-proclaimed experts were beginning to develop ingenious ideas for teaching and experimentation are an important part of this story,” said Carlyle. “They can be described as tinkerers or technicians who toiled away in workshops, but they also undertook forms of public outreach that contributed to their growing social authority.”
Particularly intriguing is the story of one Mademoiselle Biheron, a middle class Parisian who became famous for her anatomical wax models. Born in 1719, Biheron was a self-trained anatomist and entrepreneur whose museum, or ‘cabinet of curiosities’, in her house near the Sorbonne was an established, if slightly off-beat, stopping point for visitors to the capital. In a craft dominated by men, Mlle Biheron was highly unusual in being a woman. [read more]
Cranial surgery is tricky business, even under 21st-century conditions (think aseptic environment, specialized surgical instruments and copious amounts of pain medication both during and afterward).
However, evidence shows that healers in Peru practiced trepanation—a surgical procedure that…
THIS IS THE WOMAN I WORKED WITH ALL SUMMER AND AM WORKING TO PUBLISH AN ARTICLE WITH IN THE NEXT YEAR! *READ AND REBLOG*!!!
World AIDS Day, December 1st
World AIDS Day, observed on 1 December every year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. Government and health officials observe the day, often with speeches or forums on the AIDS topics.
Screenshots from Interactive World AIDS Day 2013 Infographic by CNN
Source: UK’s National AIDS Trust, WHO, UNAIDS, amfAR, CDC
EDITORIAL: BRYONY JONES
GRAPHIC: CNNI DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT
No copyright infringement intended, rights reserved to respective owners.
Photo by Juan Carlos Tomasi/MSF
Years of political and military instability in CAR have left the country in a chronic state of humanitarian crisis, particularly as it pertains to public health. The Ministry of Health has almost no presence outside of Bangui, the capital. There is just one doctor per 55,000 people and one nurse or midwife per 7,000 residents, according the United Nations, and most of those are in the capital. Read more: http://bit.ly/1exTtTP
Danny Quirk, an artist working in Massachusetts… creates body paintings with latex, markers and some acrylic that appear as if his models’ skin is peeled back.
The project began in 2012, when Halloween provided the occasion for Quirk to paint his roommate’s face and neck. From there, he made other anatomical paintings on the arms, backs and legs of willing friends, and his photographs went viral.
“The paintings started off very rough around the edges, having a ripped skin aesthetic,” says Quirk, “but as they grew, I started making them more anatomical, showing the adipose around the cuts and proper layering of nerves and vessels. I really started making medical illustrations in a new and different way than what was done before. I made ‘living lectures’ for lack of a better term.”
Quirk has his sights set on a career in biomedical illustration. He graduated from the Pratt Institute in New York in 2010, with a bachelor of fine arts in illustration, and then applied to medical schools. Without having some of the necessary science prerequisites, he wasn’t admitted, so he got a little creative. Kathy Dooley, a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, asked Quirk to do 10 to 15 illustrations for her class, and he did a little bartering, trading the artwork for a spot in her doctorate-level gross anatomy course. It was in this class that the artist got to dissect a cadaver.
“Let’s just say, the books are much prettier than the real thing. In the books, everything is color coded and pretty, where as in the labs, everything was grey, with the exception of tendons, which have a beautiful, silvery iridescent shine to them,” he says. “I learned first hand that despite its drab hue, the body is a fabulously constructed machine. It’s like lace that can stop bullets—the intricacy of its inner workings are so fine and delicate, and yet the strength and durability behind each structure is unreal.”
Quirk likes to say that he now dissects with his paintbrush. To some extent, the subject of a painting is determined by the model, and his or her features, he explains. If he has a volunteer with a particularly muscular neck, he’ll add his flourishes there.
“When you find bony landmarks, it’s just a matter of hooking the right muscles up to the right places on the bones, and coloring it in from there,” says Quirk. Of course, the time he spends on any anatomical painting depends on its size and complexity. A full rendering of a model’s back, with not just superficial musculature but also the deep intrinsics, can take up to 14 hours to complete, though the average illustration demands about four to six hours.
One of the advantages of Quirk’s anatomical body paintings is that they dynamic, compared to other biomedical illustrations, which are static images. ”I paint my anatomy very precisely, making sure to match up origins and insertions, so that when the model moves, the painting moves with it, really illustrating what happens under the skin,” he says.
Quirk is trying to arrange some guest speaking gigs at schools, where he’d use his body painting to teach anatomy. He is also working on a timelapse video of a painting in progress, overlaid with educational notes.
“Aside from that, I really want to find a bald head,” he says. [x]
A box containing assorted medical equipment, to include a wooden box with complete human skull and other bones, and a box of assorted surgical and medical instruments, etc.
Other Types of Hair
Aside from scalp hair, humans have four other primary categories of hair:
Lanugo: This is a thick, downy hair, whose name comes from the Latin “lana”, meaning “wool”. It is present on all fetal humans between approximately 5 and 8 months gestation, and is shed several weeks prior to birth. When a baby is born prematurely, it often has much of its lanugo still on its body. The hair present on the bodies of full-term babies is the much finer and less-insulating vellus hair. Lanugo is also common in the malnourished, making it a key diagnostic in anorexia nervosa.
Vellus Hair: The fine, nearly-invisible, and ubiquitous hair that covers all humans on almost all parts of the body (aside from the lips, palms, and soles of the feet) develops shortly before birth, and continues to cover the parts of the body not covered by androgenic or terminal hair throughout life. Vellus hair is less than 2-4 mm long, and is not connected to a sebaceous gland. This hair also surrounds the scalp hair on the forehead, temples, and neck.
Androgenic Hair: Beginning in puberty, thick, bushy hair begins to develop in place of the vellus hair, in the pubic and axillary (armpit) regions of both genders. In addition, it also develops on the face, chest, and stomach, to varying degrees, depending upon sex and genetics. Androgenic hair follows the same growth cycle as scalp hair, but has a shorter anagen (growth) phase, and much longer telogen (resting) phase.
Terminal Hair: This is the second of the two types of androgen-influenced hair, but it is less “bushy” and dense than what is traditionally considered “androgenic hair”. It’s colloquially known as “body hair”, and develops during puberty, but does not include facial, chest, pubic, or axillary hair.
On the legs, arms, and back, thicker, stronger hair grows beneath the vellus hair of childhood and pushes it out, replacing it completely in some parts of the body, and only partially in other parts. In women, the area covered by terminal hair is much smaller, whereas some men (particularly those with Scandinavian, Mediterranean, or Aboriginal Australian/New Zealand backgrounds) can be up to 70% covered in thick, insulating hair.
Triplets with Lanugo - Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. Henry Koplik, 1910.
Young Japanese boy, covered in vellus hair - despite the fact that it’s nearly invisible, each of us is covered with as many hairs per square inch as our apparently-hairier primate cousins! - Scenes From Every Land. Edited by Gilbert Grosvenor for National Geographic, 1907.
German boxer Max Schmeling, displaying highly developed terminal hair on the arms, as well as androgenic hair on the chest. Library of Congress digital archives. Original from 1938.
George F. Bond and Cyril Tuckfield after a rapid buoyant ascent of over 300 feet, after the USS Archerfish bottomed in 1959. Both men have significant terminal hair on the arms and legs.
Mark Twain shirtless, displaying androgenic hair - mustache and chest hair.