yesallthescience:

These are some of the exhibit pieces I saw at the National Museum of Health and Medicine. The museum was amazing when it came to their medical specimens. Their old medical equipment and the world’s biggest microscope collection was cool too.

valdanderthal:

Four methods of trepanation found in Andahuaylas, Peru-

Chanka culture, Late Intermediate Period 

Kurin, Danielle. 2012. The Bioarchaeology of Collapse: Ethnogenesis and Ethnocide in Post-Imperial Andahuaylas, Peru. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Vanderbilt University 

The Clone Disease is Follicular Lymphoma 

immunologie:

i-type-a-lot:

1. When Dyad(or whoever) manufactured/breeded the clones’ DNA they wanted the advancement of human kind, so we can assume that it was ideal or “perfect” DNA.

2. The cloned eggs were then planted in surrogate mothers via in vitro fertilization (IVF). Nearly all IVF programs utilize a supplement of estrogen hormones, such as Follicle Stimulating Horomone (FSH).

  • FSH is designed to stimulate more growth of—you guessed it—follicles in the uterus. These follicles are responsible for the production of immature ovums or eggs.

3. Therefore, follicles are vital to reproduction. Ifyou don’t already have a fertilized egg, that is. With the injections of FSH and then the implantation of the—we assume—perfectly hormonally balanced clone eggs, there is an imbalance of FSH in the uterus. There is too much, which leads to estrogen dominance.

4. Estrogen dominance shows itself many ways, but mostly through infertility.

  • This explains why Sarah (and Helena) is fertile: since she had a twin sister, the estrogen in Amelia’s womb would be distributed between the two of them and came closer to normal levels. However, the other clones had their perfect amount of estrogen, and the added FSH from the IVF. In normal in vitro patients, this doesn’t happen because the eggs come from the mother, then are fertilized by the father’s sperm in a scientific procedure, then are replaced in the same mother’s womb. The clone DNA and eggs did not come from/were not made with low estrogen levels. Their eggs were “perfect.” Thus, when the eggs were implanted in a supplemented womb, they received too much FSH.

5. Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is caused by the over active production of uterine follicles which are made of lymph tissues. This results in the growth of polyps. Like the polyps found in Jennifer’s (and likely Cosima’s) uterus.

6. Because Follicular Lymphoma cripples the immune system, it is then able to spread to other places (Jennifer, Katja and Cosima’s lungs, for example).

7. The presence of FL in our subjects is blatantly supported by Cosima’s latest blood test, the details of which were disclosed by Rachel.    

  • Cosima’s high lymphocyte count is caused by over active lymph nodes, which cause the follicle growth/polyp development.
  • Her high CRP (C-reactive protein) count detects infection and cancer. Follicular Lymphoma is a type of cancer of the lymph nodes.
  • Lastly, her high ESRs (Erythrocyte protein) count goes back to indicate an autoimmune disorder, which is the category this cancer falls in.

Looking at the fact that Jennifer had lung polyps at the time of diagnosis, she was probably diagnosed at Stage IV, which is characterized as having widespread involvement of various organs and tissues(i.e. her uterus and lungs, at the very least). At which point curing the disease is not likely. This cancer can develop for many years before showing symptoms, which is why it is so dangerous. If Cosima’s already coughing from lung polyps, we can assume she is also in Stage IV. This means approximately six months, unless Dyad can find a treatment for FL.

It’s not looking good. 85% of patients with Follicular Lymphoma are considered incurable. But let’s hold onto that 15%!

*I’m not a doctor, just a girl with a lot of free time and a wifi connection. All of the information in this post comes from linked sources, and I do not own any of the crazy science stuff. If I forgot anything, please let me know, I want to have all the factors to get a clear idea of what’s happening!*

Why it probably isn’t Follicular Lymphoma:

Hello! I don’t usually do theories because I never have the time to, but I was encouraged before by del-fin if I ever had any info to add, so here it is. This one really struck my fancy because I do study medicine (though not full-fledged MD in practice yet), and these topics are part of our board exams/come up when we deal with patients. Since I’m gonna try to do this real quick off the top of my head to try to keep it simple, please let me know if there’s anything off and I’ll try to address it at my current level of understanding.

1. It’s very difficult to predict how FSH/Estrogen levels in the mother at the time of fertilization will affect the resulting offspring’s own hormonal levels. FSH will stimulate follicles in the ovary to help with fertility (in the mother). A follicle in this case is a cell in the ovary. We don’t usually use that word to describe a polyp, which is a mass.

2. The hormone levels in the mother would not be able to affect the offspring’s own levels until the fetus develops its own hypothalamus and pituitary (the organs that regulate the hormone levels in the body), which wouldn’t happen until about 8 weeks into the pregnancy. Increased Estrogen and Progesterone (the hormone that maintains pregnancy) usually inhibit FSH via a feedback inhibition mechanism. I’m not sure if increased FSH from these treatments is the cause of the clones’ infertility.

3. Follicular Lymphoma is a cancer of B cells (type of immune cells) within the lymph nodes. It’s called follicular because the B cells are found in an area in the lymph node that is also termed a follicle (they make it so confusing). FL is actually driven by a genetic mutation where a gene is switched onto a different chromosome (a translocation).

4. FL usually presents with painless enlargement of the lymph nodes, and I think usually we find these patients in their 40s-60s. I would probably look more to a condition that typically presents around the clones’ age.

5. The lymphocyte count, CRP, and ESR are very nonspecific diagnostic tests that can prove high in a wide range of diseases, so we just use these to point us in a specific direction for diagnosing, but not as definitive diagnostic material. We’d need something like a biopsy of the lymph nodes to really support the diagnosis of FL.

  • The lymphocyte (or white blood cell) count is part of any blood test we take and is increased in infection, cancer, or any inflammation. It just means your immune cells are out and about fighting something.
  • Increased CRP and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) are both nonspecific measures of inflammation also.

FL is not classified as an autoimmune disease, it’s a cancer driven by a genetic translocation.

They could have developed FL, but many other types of cancers or conditions could also stem from the factors and symptoms listed, so the primary cause is most likely not Follicular Lymphoma just judging from the usual patient profile/presentation.

As for what I think the clones’ illness is, I have a few conditions it comes close to in mind, mostly pointing to autoimmune causes similar to the ones Cosima mentioned in the latest episode, which could also lead to a possible complication of cancer and metastases to the lungs, etc. You can always message me if you’d like me to expound, but this is already long so I’ll stop here.

And, as always, this is sci-fi, so I figure they can make it their very own unique condition too. :)

cannibaliza:

konguloarkonan:

Sometimes when I’m doing research I find an incredibly bizarre book and get this little jolt of existential terror. This was a thing that happened, and it happened so much that someone was paid to spend several years dissecting it so they could write a book about it.
Humans are weird.

goals

cannibaliza:

konguloarkonan:

Sometimes when I’m doing research I find an incredibly bizarre book and get this little jolt of existential terror. This was a thing that happened, and it happened so much that someone was paid to spend several years dissecting it so they could write a book about it.

Humans are weird.

goals

theolduvaigorge:

Fight against rheumatoid arthritis may unlock secrets to heart disease and depression
by Iain McInnes
“Arthritis is for old people, right?”
This is an outdated view of a spectrum of diseases that affect people of all ages in the population. In the past decade, there has been a revolution in the understanding and treatment of many forms of arthritis, particularly one devastating variety, namely rheumatoid.
So what is rheumatoid arthritis? Those afflicted suffer pain, swelling and progressive deformity of joints if untreated.
The core problem seems to be uncontrolled inflammation – the immune system that normally faithfully defends us against infection turns its offensive molecular and cellular power upon the joints, which leads to substantial damage.
Counting the cost
There is no cure. Rheumatoid arthritis progresses inexorably over time, causing sufferers to lose function, independence and ultimately years of life expectancy. The disease is associated with loss of work productivity, employability and increased health care costs, so there is also an increased financial burden on family and community.
The disease’s first existence is found in bone remains located in Alabama dating back thousands of years. It emerges in Europe depicted in visual arts around the 15th century.
Quite why this transition from “new” to “old” world occurred is uncertain. Intriguingly this corresponds to early voyages of discovery with commencement of trade, particularly of tobacco, and consequent movement and mixing of populations.
Recent landmark studies clearly associate the risk of getting rheumatoid arthritis with smoking both directly and passively. Those with the disease who smoke are considerably less likely to respond to therapy. Some estimate that smoking cessation could reduce the future disease burden by up to 30%.
A second major advance has been new understanding of the vital importance of the bacteria we all carry in our gastrointestinal tract – the “human microbiome”. Variations in these bacterial populations are now associated with development of several diseases related to immune dysfunction.
New data suggests a link between rheumatoid arthritis and these variations. But the value of this for diagnosis or treatment is unknown and many more studies will be required” (read more).
(Source: The Conversation)

theolduvaigorge:

Fight against rheumatoid arthritis may unlock secrets to heart disease and depression

  • by Iain McInnes

Arthritis is for old people, right?”

This is an outdated view of a spectrum of diseases that affect people of all ages in the population. In the past decade, there has been a revolution in the understanding and treatment of many forms of arthritis, particularly one devastating variety, namely rheumatoid.

So what is rheumatoid arthritis? Those afflicted suffer pain, swelling and progressive deformity of joints if untreated.

The core problem seems to be uncontrolled inflammation – the immune system that normally faithfully defends us against infection turns its offensive molecular and cellular power upon the joints, which leads to substantial damage.

Counting the cost

There is no cure. Rheumatoid arthritis progresses inexorably over time, causing sufferers to lose function, independence and ultimately years of life expectancy. The disease is associated with loss of work productivity, employability and increased health care costs, so there is also an increased financial burden on family and community.

The disease’s first existence is found in bone remains located in Alabama dating back thousands of years. It emerges in Europe depicted in visual arts around the 15th century.

Quite why this transition from “new” to “old” world occurred is uncertain. Intriguingly this corresponds to early voyages of discovery with commencement of trade, particularly of tobacco, and consequent movement and mixing of populations.

Recent landmark studies clearly associate the risk of getting rheumatoid arthritis with smoking both directly and passively. Those with the disease who smoke are considerably less likely to respond to therapy. Some estimate that smoking cessation could reduce the future disease burden by up to 30%.

A second major advance has been new understanding of the vital importance of the bacteria we all carry in our gastrointestinal tract – the “human microbiome”. Variations in these bacterial populations are now associated with development of several diseases related to immune dysfunction.

New data suggests a link between rheumatoid arthritis and these variations. But the value of this for diagnosis or treatment is unknown and many more studies will be required” (read more).

(Source: The Conversation)

Warning: Sexual Predator Signal Boost 

iseegodinbirds:

theladies-room:

It has been brought to our attention that there is a sexual predator on tumblr/twitter/skype by the name of "white-coat" or "compoundfractur" among other fake names like Joshua David Estep, Joshua David Boyd, or Finch.

Please do not engage with this man, and if possible, alert authorities…

Thanks, ladies. You are all great.

Signal boosting for the sake of not only a good friend, but for many women who’ve had to struggle through this-

white-lies-compoundproblems is a blog dedicated to women relaying their experiences with Josh Estep (whitecoat, compoundfractur on tumblr). He has emotionally, financially, and otherwise preyed on many women online, including sexual assault. 

Spreading the word is twofold: to ensure that people interacting with him via Tumblr are aware of his history of taking advantage of people, and to let women who’ve dealt with him know that they aren’t alone and it’s alright to talk about it.

While I have never been in contact with Josh Estep, he has hurt people I care about very much. Let’s all have a hand in ensuring that the communities Tumblr fosters are safe from his manipulation.

Issues of validity can be taken up at whitelies.compoundproblems@gmail.com. Please be respectful of the women who refuse to be silent. 

valdanderthal:

Four methods of trepanation found in Andahuaylas, Peru-

Chanka culture, Late Intermediate Period 

Kurin, Danielle. 2012. The Bioarchaeology of Collapse: Ethnogenesis and Ethnocide in Post-Imperial Andahuaylas, Peru. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Vanderbilt University 

catafalques:

pre-columbian peruvian skulls (owned by the DoD…) at the nmhm, silver spring, MD. 

bone-lust:

The human head, from left to right: Brain Tissue - Pia Mater - Arachnoid Mater - Dura Mater - Bone - Periosteum - Scalp

bone-lust:

The human head, from left to right: Brain Tissue - Pia Mater - Arachnoid Mater - Dura Mater - Bone - Periosteum - Scalp

deeptalkswithmonica:

dingdongyouarewrong:

frigiddykebitchcuntmanabuser2k14:

parents who vaccinate their children without their consent are terrible parents, no exceptions.

parents who let their children die of completely preventable diseases because they think 8 year olds are capable of making their own medical decisions are terrible parents. no exceptions

parents who willingly allow other people die of completely preventable diseases because they feel it is not important to vaccinate their own children for the contribution to herd immunity it provides are terrible parents and terrible people. no exceptions.

#i wanted to stay within the post format for style effect but here is some more information about that: #1. some people are unable to be vaccinated due to immune system problems etc #and are therefore at an extreme risk for contracting normally vaccinatable diseases #2. when the marjority of a population is immunized against a contagious disease it affords a degree of protection #to individuals who are not immunized #therefore people who are fully immunocompetent and able to be vaccinated absolutely should be without exception #because the more people who are vaccinated #the better shot everyone has of fighting the disease #it is the obligation of the immunocompetent to provide their share of immunity to the herd and protect those who are at risk

The Council of Foreign Relations Global Health Program has an interactive world map showing some of the outbreaks of preventable diseases traced back to anti-vaccination campaigning.

strangebiology:

Mütter museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Over 25,00 specimens inhabit the Mütter museum, showcasing human mutations, injuries, and abnormalities. Thomas Mütter, a surgeon, collected abnormal and unique specimens in an effort to show his students the wide variety in human bodies. He donated his collection of 1,300 anatomical and pathological materials to a museum that opened in 1863.

Included here is a 70-pound ovarian cyst, skulls affected by syphilis, a stone fetus, and more. All of these existed inside living, breathing humans, as you see them, testaments to the fragility of humans and their development.

imustbemrbloggins:

Trepanation (also trephination) as seen in paleopathological research from around the world. Many of these examples show extensive evidence of healing, meaning that the individual lived after the procedure. This is considered to be one of the oldest medical practices in human history, originating at least 9/10,000 years ago.

Skeletons in the cupboard of medical science | University of Cambridge 

In museums and galleries throughout the capitals of Europe, young men who embarked on the Grand Tour gazed at artistic representations of the human body in paintings, waxworks, and sculptures. Popular were the ‘Skeletons of Malefactors’ on display at the University of Leiden. Wax figures known as Venuses, found in Felice Fontana’s Florentine workshop, are mentioned in many letters and journals recounting travellers’ formative experiences. Grand tourists may well have also visited brothels where, well away from the confines of home, they would have gained (or expanded on) their early sexual experiences.

Research suggests that many young travellers also went to see smaller and less celebrated museums that displayed representations of human anatomy in the shape of skeletons (obtained by rendering down corpses), pickled body parts, and wax models of the body created to show with detailed accuracy the internal organs.

“My research explores the material side of human anatomy and the variety of spaces where new techniques and forms were developed.  The ways in which self-proclaimed experts were beginning to develop ingenious ideas for teaching and experimentation are an important part of this story,” said Carlyle. “They can be described as tinkerers or technicians who toiled away in workshops, but they also undertook forms of public outreach that contributed to their growing social authority.”

Particularly intriguing is the story of one Mademoiselle Biheron, a middle class Parisian who became famous for her anatomical wax models. Born in 1719, Biheron was a self-trained anatomist and entrepreneur whose museum, or ‘cabinet of curiosities’, in her house near the Sorbonne was an established, if slightly off-beat, stopping point for visitors to the capital. In a craft dominated by men, Mlle Biheron was highly unusual in being a woman. [read more]