cheshicat:

Check out tab #dimorphism #primates #baboons #skulls #faunal #smithsonian #naturalhistory #dc #washington (at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History)

cheshicat:

Check out tab #dimorphism #primates #baboons #skulls #faunal #smithsonian #naturalhistory #dc #washington (at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History)

shared 1 week ago with 75 NOTES · (@drkrislynn) · source
#ayyyyy #primatology #osteology
theolduvaigorge:

Peking Man!

theolduvaigorge:

Peking Man!

stevenjohnhodges:

Black + White Lino cut series. 210 x 297 mm.

scienceyoucanlove:

In China, world’s first successful 3D-printed shoulder and collar bone implants have been performed In Xi’an, China, the capital of Shaanxi province, 3D-printed titanium prostheses were successfully implanted into three patients suffering from cancerous bone tumors. The procedures took place on March 27 and April 3 this year and the patients are currently in good condition and recovering with their new, 3D-printed bone replacements: a collar bone, a shoulder bone, and the right ilium of the pelvis.One of the three patients, a 20-year-old woman, was diagnosed a year ago with Ewing’s sarcoma in her right collar bone. Ewing’s sarcoma is a type of small, round, blue-celled tumor. The second patient also suffered from this disease in her right scapula or shoulder bone.And the third patient was diagnosed with cancer in the right ilium of the pelvis. These patients all had malignant tumors which could be life threatening if not removed. Eventually, the hospital decided that operations were needed to remove the tumors and replace the affected bones. This is where 3D printing technology comes in.A clavicle or collarbone replacement is a difficult procedure because of the complexity of the bone. With 3D-printing technology, it was possible to avoid some complications involved in the traditional procedure. Computer imaging was used to design a collarbone in the exact size and shape of the patient’s original bone. The 3D bone design was printed using laser sintering technology which fused titanium powder into the exact shape of the bone. This process produces a strong, customized titanium implant which ensures the implant fits well in the patient’s body. Infections and loosening and can be prevented in this way and lead to better health and functionality for the patient.Full article:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20140603-in-china-world-first-successful-3d-printed-shoulder-and-collar-bone-implants.html
source 

scienceyoucanlove:

In China, world’s first successful 3D-printed shoulder and collar bone implants have been performed 

In Xi’an, China, the capital of Shaanxi province, 3D-printed titanium prostheses were successfully implanted into three patients suffering from cancerous bone tumors. The procedures took place on March 27 and April 3 this year and the patients are currently in good condition and recovering with their new, 3D-printed bone replacements: a collar bone, a shoulder bone, and the right ilium of the pelvis.

One of the three patients, a 20-year-old woman, was diagnosed a year ago with Ewing’s sarcoma in her right collar bone. Ewing’s sarcoma is a type of small, round, blue-celled tumor. The second patient also suffered from this disease in her right scapula or shoulder bone.

And the third patient was diagnosed with cancer in the right ilium of the pelvis. These patients all had malignant tumors which could be life threatening if not removed. Eventually, the hospital decided that operations were needed to remove the tumors and replace the affected bones. This is where 3D printing technology comes in.

A clavicle or collarbone replacement is a difficult procedure because of the complexity of the bone. With 3D-printing technology, it was possible to avoid some complications involved in the traditional procedure. 

Computer imaging was used to design a collarbone in the exact size and shape of the patient’s original bone. The 3D bone design was printed using laser sintering technology which fused titanium powder into the exact shape of the bone. This process produces a strong, customized titanium implant which ensures the implant fits well in the patient’s body. Infections and loosening and can be prevented in this way and lead to better health and functionality for the patient.

Full article:
http://www.3ders.org/articles/20140603-in-china-world-first-successful-3d-printed-shoulder-and-collar-bone-implants.html

source 

asylum-art:

Alan John Herbert: “The Body”

Alan John Herbert‘s The Body has only one flaw, it is too brief. It is such a beautiful series–brilliant even. The two mediums, illustration and photography, partake in a wonderful waltz, gliding across your psyche without missing a beat.

yesallthescience:

These are some of the exhibit pieces I saw at the National Museum of Health and Medicine. The museum was amazing when it came to their medical specimens. Their old medical equipment and the world’s biggest microscope collection was cool too.

theolduvaigorge:

To 3D or Not to 3D, That Is the Question: Do 3D Surface Analyses Improve the Ecomorphological Power of the Distal Femur in Placental Mammals?

  • by Francois D. H. Gould

"Improvements in three-dimensional imaging technologies have renewed interest in the study of functional and ecological morphology. Quantitative approaches to shape analysis are used increasingly to study form-function relationships. These methods are computationally intensive, technically demanding, and time-consuming, which may limit sampling potential. There have been few side-by-side comparisons of the effectiveness of such approaches relative to more traditional analyses using linear measurements and ratios. Morphological variation in the distal femur of mammals has been shown to reflect differences in locomotor modes across clades. Thus I tested whether a geometric morphometric analysis of surface shape was superior to a multivariate analysis of ratios for describing ecomorphological patterns in distal femoral variation. A sample of 164 mammalian specimens from 44 genera was assembled. Each genus was assigned to one of six locomotor categories. The same hypotheses were tested using two methods. Six linear measurements of the distal femur were taken with calipers, from which four ratios were calculated. A 3D model was generated with a laser scanner, and analyzed using three dimensional geometric morphometrics. Locomotor category significantly predicted variation in distal femoral morphology in both analyses. Effect size was larger in the geometric morphometric analysis than in the analysis of ratios. Ordination reveals a similar pattern with arboreal and cursorial taxa as extremes on a continuum of morphologies in both analyses. Discriminant functions calculated from the geometric morphometric analysis were more accurate than those calculated from ratios. Both analysis of ratios and geometric morphometric surface analysis reveal similar, biologically meaningful relationships between distal femoral shape and locomotor mode. The functional signal from the morphology is slightly higher in the geometric morphometric analysis. The practical costs of conducting these sorts of analyses should be weighed against potentially slight increases in power when designing protocols for ecomorphological studies" (read more/open access).

(Open access sourcePLoS ONE 9(3): e91719, 2014)

theolduvaigorge:

Evolutionary insights into global patterns of human cranial diversity: population history, climatic and dietary effects

  • by Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel

"The study of cranial variation has a long, and somewhat difficult, history within anthropology. Much of this difficulty is rooted in the historical use of craniometric data to justify essentialist typological racial classification schemes. In the post-war era of the ‘New Physical Anthropology’ (sensu Washburn, 1951), anthropologists began to analyse human variation in an explicitly populationist and evolutionary philosophical and analytical framework. However, even within recent decades, substantially different approaches have been employed; some advocate a focus on the analysis of individual traits or clines, while others are explicitly adaptationist, with a focus on natural selection as the preeminent force of phenotypic diversification. In recent years, a series of studies have analysed craniometric data in an explicitly quantitative genetic framework, which emphasises the importance of neutral forces such as migration, gene flow and genetic drift in creating global patterns of phenotypic diversity. This approach has revealed that global patterns of cranial variation can largely be explained on the basis of neutral theory. Therefore, human cranial data can be productively employed as a proxy for neutral genetic data in archaeological contexts. Moreover, there is a growing recognition that regions of the cranium differ in the extent to which they fit a neutral model of microevolutionary expectation, allowing for a more detailed assessment of patterns of adaptation and phenotypic plasticity within the human skull. Taking an historical perspective, the current state of knowledge regarding patterns of cranial adaptation in response to climatic and dietary effects is reviewed. Further insights will be gained by better incorporating the study of cranial and postcranial variation, as well as understanding the impact of neutral versus non-neutral evolution in creating among-species diversity patterns in primates more generally. However, this will most effectively be achieved when comparative anatomy studies are situated within an explicitly quantitative genetic evolutionary framework" (read more/open access).

***Haven’t read it. I think I have another craniometrics article in the queue too but.

(Open access source: Journal of Anthropological Sciences 92:43-77, 2014)

valdanderthal:

human

deer  

goat

bear   

dog

pig   

rabbit

opossum 

chicken

Source: Adams B, Crabtree P (2011) Comparative Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Guide of Common North American Animals. Academic Press.

strangeremains:

3 Crazy Fractures:

1st image I got from Bones Don’t Lie (a bioarchaeology blog I love): This is a posterior view of a healed apposition fracture in the left tibia and fibula of a Romano-British male.  A healed appositional fracture occurs when bones don’t heal properly, and they heal next to each other, not end to end.  This picture is from a post Katy Meyers wrote on fracture treatment in Iron Age and Roman Britain.  Meyers got the picture from: 

Redfern, Rebecca (2010). A regional examination of surgery and fracture treatment in Iron Age and Roman BritainInternational Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 25 (4) DOI: 10.1002/oa.1067

2nd Image from the Smithsonian Institution:  In 1992, archaeologists found well-preserved remains of a 17th century woman in a lead coffin, possibly Anne Wolseley Calvert, buried in a Chesapeake cemetery. The severe appositional fracture in the midshaft of the bone would have made her right leg shorter than the left. A large draining sinus formed in the bone after the break and persisted throughout the rest of her life.

3rd Image from Harvard Medical Library: Radius and ulna from a 35 year old soldier injured on July 3, 1863 at the Battle of Gettysburg. His radius was fractured by gunshot and his ulna by a two inch long piece of fragmented gun barrel.  The arm was amputated on September 12th after it became infected. He became septic on  October 4th and died on October 10th, 1863.

 

strangeremains:

saulocruz:

:) by lafillerenne on Flickr.

I think this is from the Museum of Anatomy in Montpellier, France.  URL of photo on lafillerenne’s Flickr page.
This is a woman with monocephalus diprosopus, which is a form of conjoined twinning when a person is born with one head and two faces "or a spectrum of duplication of the craniofacial structures." 

strangeremains:

saulocruz:

:) by lafillerenne on Flickr.

I think this is from the Museum of Anatomy in Montpellier, France.  URL of photo on lafillerenne’s Flickr page.

This is a woman with monocephalus diprosopus, which is a form of conjoined twinning when a person is born with one head and two faces "or a spectrum of duplication of the craniofacial structures." 

theolduvaigorge:

Evidence of Rickets and/or Scurvy in a Complete Chalcolithic Child Skeleton from the El Portalón Site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)

  • by Maria Castilla, José-Miguel Carretero, Ana Gracia and Juan-Luis Arsuaga

A case of what are most likely metabolic diseases is identified in a child buried during Chalcolithic times in the El Portalón site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The skeleton has been directly dated by C14 to between 5030 to 5020 Cal BP. Macroscopic analysis and a CT scan reveal a set of lesions both in the skull and the long bones, which indicate that this individual probably suffered from rickets and scurvy at different stages of his/her life. The lesions are bilateral and are characterized by abnormal porosity, new bone formation and deformation of long bones. The presence of non-specific stress indicators, such as enamel hypoplasias and Harris lines, allow us to establish two times of stress associated with these pathologies: one crisis during infancy (1-3 yrs) and subsequently a second crisis at the beginning of childhood (3-5 yrs). The etiology of both metabolic diseases could be associated with abnormal feeding during these stages of life and/or the living conditions of these populations, e.g., the preparation of food and/ or the existence of infections caused by the transmission of pathogens and unhealthy hygiene. Evidence of metabolic diseases during the recent European Prehistory is rather unknown and very few cases have been reported. Thus, the child from El Portalón can add relevant information about the life and health conditions of these prehistoric populations” (read more/open access).

(Open access source: Journal of Anthropological Sciences 92:257-271, 2014)

theolduvaigorge:

Evidence of Rickets and/or Scurvy in a Complete Chalcolithic Child Skeleton from the El Portalón Site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)

  • by Maria Castilla, José-Miguel Carretero, Ana Gracia and Juan-Luis Arsuaga

A case of what are most likely metabolic diseases is identified in a child buried during Chalcolithic times in the El Portalón site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The skeleton has been directly dated by C14 to between 5030 to 5020 Cal BP. Macroscopic analysis and a CT scan reveal a set of lesions both in the skull and the long bones, which indicate that this individual probably suffered from rickets and scurvy at different stages of his/her life. The lesions are bilateral and are characterized by abnormal porosity, new bone formation and deformation of long bones. The presence of non-specific stress indicators, such as enamel hypoplasias and Harris lines, allow us to establish two times of stress associated with these pathologies: one crisis during infancy (1-3 yrs) and subsequently a second crisis at the beginning of childhood (3-5 yrs). The etiology of both metabolic diseases could be associated with abnormal feeding during these stages of life and/or the living conditions of these populations, e.g., the preparation of food and/ or the existence of infections caused by the transmission of pathogens and unhealthy hygiene. Evidence of metabolic diseases during the recent European Prehistory is rather unknown and very few cases have been reported. Thus, the child from El Portalón can add relevant information about the life and health conditions of these prehistoric populations” (read more/open access).

(Open access source: Journal of Anthropological Sciences 92:257-271, 2014)